Computes the reciprocal of the number currently displayed.

Computes the square root of the number currently displayed.

Computes the square of the number currently displayed.

Computes the logarithm to base 10 of the number currently displayed.

To get the logarithm to any arbitrary base, divide the result by the
logarithm
of the base. E.g. to get the log to base 2 of 5 use: **5**`log``
/ `**2**`log`` = `, result: ` 2.321928
`.

Computes the natural logarithm (logarithm to base e) of the number currently displayed.

Computes X to the power of a.

Example:

Calculate 5 raised to the power of 6.

**5 x^{a} 6 **

Result: `15625.000000 `

Computes the ath root of X (i.e. X to the power of the reciprocal of a).

Example:

Calculate the cube root of two:

**2 root 3 **

Result: `1.259921004989 `

The `deg` or
` �
/'` button is used to enter an angle in
degrees, minutes and seconds (sexagesimal) in the Angle mode. The button
replaces the `M+` button which appears
in Decimal modes.

To enter a number in sexagesimal format, first enter the number of whole
degrees, and press `deg` or
` �
/'`. Then enter the number of minutes and press `deg` or
` �
/'` again. Finally enter the number of seconds and press `deg`
or
` �
/'` a final time (this last press can be
omitted). If there are no seconds, the last step can be omitted. Similarly if
the number is a whole number of degrees, this can be entered directly without
using the `deg` or
` �
/'` button at all. You can also input a
decimal fraction of degrees, for example 1.5, and this will be converted to
sexagesimal notation for display.

Arithmetic calculations can be carried out in Angle mode, or the result or number entered can be converted to another format by selecting a different calculator mode. Similarly a number in any other base can be converted to sexagesimal format by selecting the Angle mode.

Selecting Angle mode automatically selects appropriate properties and units for conversion.

Example:

What is the sine of 17 degrees, 14 minutes and 30 seconds?

First click on `shift``Ang`
, select Angle mode in the *Mode* menu or the
keyboard shortcut
(Alt Shift A).

**1 7 **
` �
/'`** 1 4 **
` �
/'`** 3 0 **
` �
/'`

Result: `17 � 14' 30" `

Click on `Dec`
to change to Decimal mode or use the Mode
menu or the keyboard shortcut (Alt Shift D):

Result: `17.2416666666667`

`sin`

Result: `0.2964026699`

The `:` button is used to enter a time in
hours, minutes and seconds. The button replaces the `M+` button which
appears
in Decimal modes.

To enter a number in sexagesimal format, first enter the number of whole
hours, and press `:`. Then enter the number of minutes and press `:`
again. Finally, if needed, enter the number of seconds and press `:`.
If the time is a whole number of hours, this can be entered directly without
using the `:` button at all. You can also input a decimal
fraction of hours, for example 1.5, and this will be converted to sexagesimal
notation for display.

Arithmetic calculations can be carried out in Time mode, or the result or number entered can be converted to another format by selecting a different calculator mode. Similarly a number in any other base can be converted to sexagesimal format by selecting the Time mode.

Example:

I started work at 08:30 and finished at 18:54, and I took a 45 minute
lunch break. How many hours do I put on my time sheet?

First click `shift` `Time`
or select Time in the Mode menu, or use the keyboard shortcut (Alt Shift
T).

**1 8 : 5 4 : - 8 : 3 0 -
: 4 5 =**

Result: `09:39:00.00 `

To continue the calculation to accumulate hours for a weekly time sheet,
use the `m+` button. To convert to a decimal number of hours, select
Decimal mode (or Alt Shift D).

Generates a pseudo-random number between 0 and 1. If you need a number corresponding to some other range, multiply by that number.

Example: Obtain a random number between 0 and 100.

`rand` ` X ` **100**
` = `

Computes the fractional part of a number.

Example: Obtain the fractional part of pi.

`shift ` ` pi ` `shift`
`frac` ` = `

Result: ` 0.1415926536
`

Computes the integer part of a number.

Example: Obtain the integer part of pi.

`shift ` ` pi ` `shift`
`int` ` = `

Result: ` 3.
`

Computes the remainder of a division. This is the shifted version of the
divide ( ` �
` ) button.

Example: What is the remainder of 27 divided by 6.

**27** `shift` `mod` ** 6
= **

Result: ` 3.
`

Computes the sine of an angle.

Computes the hyperbolic sine of an angle.

Computes the arc sine, i.e. the angle for which the sine is the value entered.

Computes the angle for which the hyperbolic sine is the value entered.

Computes the cosine of an angle.

Computes the hyperbolic cosine of an angle.

Computes the angle for which the cosine is the value entered.

Computes the angle for which the hyperbolic cosine is the value entered.

Computes the tangent of an angle.

Computes the hyperbolic tangent of an angle.

Computes the angle for which the tangent is the value entered.

Computes the angle for which the hyperbolic tangent is the value entered.

Computes the factorial of a current number. If the current number displayed is not an integer, the result is the factorial of the integer value of the current number.

Enters the value of pi, the ratio of the circumference of a circle to it's diameter, in the display.

Computes 10 raised to the power of the current number, giving the inverse logarithm (antilogarithm).

To compute the antilogarithm to any base, use the x^a button where x is the base. For example: to find the base 2 antilogarithm of 2.3219280949 enter "2 x^a 2.3219280949 =", result: 5.

Computes the value of e raised to the power of the current number (exponential function or inverse of natural logarithm).

Changes the sign of the number currently displayed.

Use this button to remove the most recently entered numbers, digit by digit.

To remove the whole of an entry, use `CE`
(Clear entry).

The ` ( `
and ` ) ` buttons
are used to enforce the order of evaluation of an expression. For example,
the expression 1 + 2 X 3 would be evaluated as 9 if operator precedence
is determined by the order of entry (e.g. using As Entered logic). This is a
different answer to the
same expression evaluated using algebraic precedence or in a programming
language such as BASIC, C or FORTRAN, which gives multiplication and division
precedence over addition and subtraction.

To force the calculator to evaluate a particular expression first, use parentheses (brackets). Evaluating 1 + (2 X 3) always gives the result 7, regardless of whether As Entered or Algebraic logic is selected.

See **
)**.

Closes a level of parentheses. The current level of parentheses is shown in the button legend.

See **(**.