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Calculator Basics


Calc is a pocket calculator simulator program for the Microsoft Windows operating systems, including handheld devices using Windows CE, such as Pocket PC. It can be used in place of the calculator program which is included with the operating system, with many additional features and greater flexibility. On handheld devices, it can be carried around instead of a pocket calculator. It is especially designed for scientific and engineering students and professionals and includes a wide range of units conversions and scientific functions. It also has statistics, financial and time functions, including a stopwatch.

Despite the range of features, Calc98 is very compact in terms of screen space, so you can keep it maximized while working within another application and make use of the 'always on top' option, or keep it in the system tray. You can also customize the appearance of Calc98, including the resizing of buttons and their fonts and layout. Just as with a conventional calculator, space is at a premium, so many of the calculator buttons have to double up the functions they provide. The layout of the calculator in its normal state has the functions you would expect to see on a fairly standard scientific calculator, which means that it is probably self explanatory. But pay special attention to the shift button in the top left hand corner, because this allows you to access additional functions which are not normally visible on the keypads. The buttons change when you press the shift button. If you press the shift button again, the buttons revert to their un-shifted state.

You can enter numbers either by clicking on the buttons with a mouse or stylus, or using the keyboard. You can use the numeric keypad to enter numbers and simple arithmetic operators (make sure Num Lock is on). The enter key can be used as an additional equals key (except in RPN mode). Most of the calculator functions can be accessed from your computer keyboard (these are sometimes called 'keyboard shortcuts' or 'keyboard accelerators'). Keyboard accelerators are listed by key and by meaning. You can also use the Caps Lock key on your keyboard instead of the shift button.

The menu bar (or command bar) can be used to give access to additional functions.

AC All Clear

Clears the calculator, and resets any functions. The contents of the memory are not affected by AC. The memory can be cleared after pressing AC by pressing Min.

CE Clear Entry

Erases the last number or operation entered.

+ Addition

This button performs addition.

- Minus

This button performs subtraction.

/ Divide

This button performs division.

X Multiply

This button performs multiplication.

= Equals

Displays the result of an arithmetic operation. It can be used during a calculation to ensure that an intermediate result has been evaluated. Unless the = button is pressed, it is possible that an operation is incomplete - pressing = ensures that no arithmetic operations are pending.

Certain functions make use of the = button to signify the end of input, in order to evaluate a result.

% Percent key

This button (shift = or Enter button) displays the result of an arithmetic operation as a percentage.

Examples:
Calculate five sixteenths as a percentage.

5 / 1 6 shift %
Result: 31.25%

Calculate 17.5% of � 250.00:
250 x 17.5 shift %
Result: � 43.75

Calculate 12% mark-up on $250
250 + 12 shift %
Result: $280

Give 5% discount on goods costing $125
125 - 5 shift %
Result: $118.75

pi Pi key

This button (shifted Exp button) displays the value of pi (the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter).

M+ Memory Plus

Pressing this button adds the number displayed to the contents of the memory. Additional memories can be accessed by pressing the shift key before pressing this button, which will change to Mn+.

Mn+ Memory n Plus

Add to one of ten memories (labelled 0-9) using this button, which is obtained by pressing the shift button. After pressing Mn+ press the number button corresponding to the desired memory. Memory number zero is the default memory (i.e. the memory referred to by the un-shifted memory buttons).

Min Memory Input

Press the min button to enter the currently displayed number into the memory.

If you first press shift before Min you can select one of the ten memories (0-9). Memory zero is the default memory, i.e. the memory available without pressing the shift button.

MnIn Memory n Input

Input a value to one of ten memories (labelled 0-9) using this button, which is obtained by pressing the shift button. After pressing MnIn press the number button corresponding to the desired memory. Memory number zero is the default memory (i.e. the memory referred to by the un-shifted memory buttons). The "Clear All" button allows you to delete the contents of all the memories.

MR Memory Recall

Use this button to put the contents of the memory onto the display. The default memory is number zero. To display other memories, first press the shift button and then the MR button and select the required memory.

MnR Memory n Recall

Access one of ten memories (labelled 0-9) using the this button, which is obtained by pressing the shift button. After pressing MnR press the number button corresponding to the desired memory. Memory number zero is the default memory (i.e. the memory referred to by the un-shifted memory buttons).

. Decimal Point

Use the . button to enter the decimal part of a number. The decimal point is disabled in non-decimal number systems.

EXP Exponent

Use this button to enter a number in exponent form. To input a number, enter the mantissa, followed by the EXP key, then +/- if required, then the exponent. To enter a negative number, use the +/- before the EXP key.

Example:
To enter the number 1.234 x 10^6 (1.234E6) press the following buttons:

1 . 2 3 4 EXP 6

0 - 9 Number buttons

Number buttons are used in all modes. In Hexadecimal mode they are augmented by the letters A to F. In Octal mode the 8 and 9 buttons are disabled. In Binary mode only the numbers 0 and 1 are enabled. In statistics mode the number buttons are used with the shift button to obtain the statistical functions.

shift Shift

Use the shift button to access additional functions. The functions available depend on the calculator mode, and are indicated by changes to the legends on the calculator buttons.

Errors

If you get an error, the calculator display will contain an appropriate message, and possibly some further descriptive information. In the case of certain errors, the calculator functions are disabled and you need to press the AC button to clear the error.