button brings up the Options dialogue which allows you to change the number
base of the calculator or select special features, and to customize the
appearance and behavior of the calculator. The mode dialogue can also be
invoked by right clicking while the pointer is on the calculator body,
or selecting Options from either the system menu or the menu/command bar
Selecting one of the options in the Angle
group determines how values
of angles are interpreted when using the trigonometric functions.
selection changes the number base between the many number
modes available. Changing the Mode alters the legends on buttons which
have functions specific to different number modes, or disables features
which are not appropriate. The buttons which fall into this category have
no legend. The way in which data is displayed also changes between various
Changing number mode changes the calculator display, but any data stored
in the calculator is retained. Therefore you can convert between different
number systems by entering data and then selecting the new number base.
However, only the decimal system has a decimal point, the other number
bases work for integers only. Also note that a number in one system will
require a larger number of digits in a lower number base, which may cause
an overflow. This is especially likely when converting to binary.
When converting between different number modes it is sometimes inconvenient
to keep going to the Mode dialogue. For quick Number Mode changes, either
use the quick mode buttons on the fifth row of the function keypad, or
use the accelerator or shortcut keys. These are all obtained by holding
down Shift and Alt on the keyboard and typing the appropriate letter, i.e.
D for Decimal, H for Hexadecimal, T for Time, etc. See the listing of keyboard
There is a fifth row of function keys which allow you to quickly switch
between modes. This is especially useful when working in multiple
number bases. The fifth function keypad row is enabled by default
when the software is installed but can be removed using the View
tab of the options dialogue. Note that earlier versions used four
rows of function keys and this will be picked up as the default, so you
may need to explicitly set the number of rows
The format for display of decimal numbers is controlled by the Display
Binary numbers and bit wise logic operators.
Octal numbers and bit wise logic operators.
Hexadecimal numbers and bit wise logic operators.
Arbitrary base numbers up to base 36. The base is set by an edit box adjacent
to the BaseN radio button. For example, using a base of 10 gives decimal
integers. For bases less than 10 the appropriate numeric buttons are enabled.
For bases up to 16 (Hexadecimal) the letters A-F become progressively available.
Beyond base 16 it is not practical to provide buttons for letters, and
the computer keyboard must be used. The convention is for the upper case
letter to be used (i.e. shifted letter).
An interesting example is base 36, where all the decimal digits and
all the letters of the alphabet are available. In this case, words can
be encoded and made the subject of computation. This gives interesting
possibilities for word games and simple ciphers.
GADGET - 3ZS45L = CALC98
Convert to Decimal:
puts the calculator into statistics mode. This
is the same as decimal
mode except that the M+
for entering data values into the statistics memory. On
pressing the shift
button the AC
(All Clear) button and some
of the number buttons change to show the statistical functions. See the
section on Statistics Functions
for more information.
mode enables the financial functions of the
calculator. This also changes the precision of the display to show two
decimal places, fixed point. See the section on Financial
for more information.
Angle and Time
The Angle and Time modes allow display and input as sexagesimal numbers.
In Time mode a stopwatch feature
is also available.
Roman numerals can be selected to display integers greater than zero.
Note that zero is represented by a blank display. It is possible
to perform calculations in Roman numerals, although in practice it is more
likely you would want to convert to or from decimal numbers.
Three types of operator precedence are offered; As Entered
. In operator precedence the arithmetic operators are evaluated
exactly in the order they are entered. For example, "1 + 2 * 3" evaluates
to 9, because "1+2" is evaluated first, to give the result 3, which is
then multiplied by 3. Simple calculators, typically used for financial
calculations, often work this way.
Scientific calculators use algebraic precedence where multiplication
and division take priority over addition and subtraction, regardless of
the order in which the expression is presented. In this case "1 + 2 * 3"
evaluates to 7, because "2*3" is evaluated first, and the result added
to 1. This is the default precedence for Calc98.
The single level of built-in algebraic precedence may not be sufficient
for more complex expressions, and the solution is to use parentheses.
Users of RPN (Reverse Polish Notation) calculators
are able to perform complex calculations without parentheses because each
value can be pushed onto a "stack" and the operators applied in order.
This elegant method was available in early Hewlett-Packard scientific models
before calculators with parentheses became available. Many of the users
of these calculators prefer to continue using RPN, so this has been added
as a third precedence option.
In RPN mode some of the button legends and
behaviour change. In particular, the = button is labelled Enter
and is used to enter or push a value onto the stack. The Min and
buttons become STO and RCL respectively. There are no parenthesis
buttons, but CLx and REG buttons are provided.